Australia’s first inhabitants, the Aboriginal people, are believed to have migrated from some unknown point in Asia to Australia between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago.

While Captain James Cook is credited with Australia’s European discovery in 1770, a Portuguese possibly first sighted the country, while the Dutch are known to have explored the coastal regions in the 1640s.

The first European settlement of Australia was in January 1788, when the First Fleet sailed into Botany Bay under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip. Originally established as a penal colony, by the 1830s the number of free settlers was increasing. Transportation of convicts to the eastern colonies was abolished in 1852 and to the western colonies in 1868.


As of December 2016, Australia’s population is roughly 24.4 million people. The most populous states are New South Wales and Victoria, with their respective capitals, Sydney and Melbourne, the largest cities in Australia.

Australia’s population is concentrated along the coastal region of Australia from Adelaide to Cairns, with a small concentration around Perth, Western Australia. The centre of Australia is sparsely populated.


Australian culture is as broad and varied as the country’s landscape. Australia is multicultural and multiracial and this is reflected in the country’s food, lifestyle and cultural practices and experience.

Australia has an important heritage from its indigenous people, which plays a defining role in the cultural landscape.

This diversity of influences creates a cultural environment in Australia that is lively, energised, innovative and outward looking.


The majority of Australia experiences temperate weather for most of the year.

The northern states of Australia are typically warm all the time, with the southern states experiencing cool winters but rarely sub-zero temperatures.

Snow falls on the higher mountains during the winter months, enabling skiing in southern New South Wales and Victorian ski resorts, as well as the smaller resorts in Australia’s island state, Tasmania.

Legal system

Australia follows a Westminster system of government and law inherited from the British who originally colonised the country.

There are two main political parties and a number of minor parties, which make up the Commonwealth Parliament. Each state and territory also has its own government.


Australia is an island continent and the world’s sixth largest country (7,682,300 sq km).

Lying between the Indian and Pacific oceans, the country is approximately 4,000 km from east to west and 3,200 km from north to south, with a coastline 36,735 km long.

Canberra is Australia’s capital city. With a population of approximately 380,000 people and situated in the Australian Capital Territory, Canberra is roughly half way between the two largest cities Melbourne and Sydney.

Australia has 19 listed World Heritage properties. Australia is also famous for its landmark buildings including the Sydney Harbour Bridge; its ancient geology, as well as for its high country.

Career Opportunities

Australia is fast emerging as the preferred destination to study for those from the sub-continent. It continues to be among the favourites for many of us due to its quality of education, life, and the multicultural fabric. Since most of us who choose to study abroad also prefer to gain work experience there, it is highly pertinent to look at which careers offer the best chances to succeed in Australia.

We look at the current salary ranges within individual sectors in Australia to determine which of them pay the best and look set to go from strength to strength. A combination of good pay and good prognosis for the sector make them the best career bets for South Asian students headed to Australia for further studies. It should be kept in mind though that salary estimates may vary from source to source and region to region. However, the following information will give you a very good idea about the highest paying sectors in Australia. (As a rule, engineers, doctors/nurses, lawyers, IT professionals, consultants, Rail & Maritime Transport, Mining jobs, sales, hotels/restaurant and finance experts do well in that country.) Many of these sectors offer opportunities to earn in six figures within just a couple of years of joining.

Visa Categories

Study visa
Visitor visa
Working and skilled visa
Family and spousal visa
Work and Holiday Visa
Travel Visa
Partner Visa (Family Visa) Program
Resident Return Visa Program
Retirement Visa Program
Australian Citizenship
Business Visa Program
Special purpose visa


Health care in Australia is provided by both private and government organisations. The Australian Government looks after national health policy, with key elements (such as the operation of hospitals) operated by state governments. Medicare is the publicly funded health care system for everyone in Australia. It coexists with a private health system.

Australia has the third and seventh highest life expectancy of males and females respectively in the world. Life expectancy in Australia in 2010 was 79.5 years for males and 84.0 years for females. Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, while cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disease, responsible for 7.8% of the total mortality and disease. Ranked second in preventable causes is hypertension at 7.6%, with obesity third at 7.5%.Australia ranks 35th in the world and near the top of developed nations for its proportion of obese adults and nearly two thirds (63%) of its adult population is either overweight or obese.

Total expenditure on health (including private sector spending) is around 9.8% of GDP.Australia introduced universal health care in 1975. Known as Medicare, it is now nominally funded by an income tax surcharge known as the Medicare levy, currently set at 1.5%. The states manage hospitals and attached outpatient services, while the Commonwealth funds the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (subsidising the costs of medicines) and general practice